Lighting Up the Road to Somewhere
Highway lighting plays an important role in ensuring that the roadways are safe for drivers by ensuring that the streets are visible, even at night. Highway lighting, although similar to street lighting, serves a much more vast purpose.
You can read about street lights here, but just know that they are less powerful than highway lights with different layout needs.
Highway lights allow drivers to safely traverse uninhabited stretches of road without danger. They illuminate other vehicles, but also barriers, bridges, signs, and ditches to help reduce car accidents.
Adequate highway lighting should make driers feel safer and more comfortable and can decrease the likelihood of roadway incidents by up to 30%.
Highway Lighting Checklist
When installing good, high-quality lighting, you can expect it to do the following things.
Extend the range of visibility beyond the limits of vehicle headlights both sideways and lengthwise.
Enhance road visibility as well as the visibility of objects and features on the road or near it.
Outline the road ahead and enhance the range of vision of the road and its surrounding area.
Reduce the angst of everyone using the road.
Highway Lighting Visibility Requirements
Although illuminating the highway accomplishes all the tasks above, the only thing it physically does is improve visibility.
With this information, installing the brightest light you can find only makes sense. But, there are several nuances to consider, as with any type of lighting.
As the light levels reduce, the ability to detect information and visibility becomes drastically impaired or completely nonexistent.
Alternatively, as light levels rise, vision improves, and detecting information becomes much easier.
Again, this information may lead you to believe that choosing the brightest light possible is best, but there are other factors in play here. And one of those factors is contrast.
The contrast between two objects lies in the different levels of brightness between the background and the object. As the level of contrast increases, it becomes easier and easier to differentiate the subject from the background.
When driving, people usually perceive objects in forms – a dark space against a bright background. Nevertheless, that bright background might result in glare which can reduce the level of contrast as well as the driver’s ability to see details.
The best way to balance the needs between a bright light and no glare is to be mindful of the lights angle, and the quality of the light.
LED Highway lighting is your best choice, and the easiest way to avoid a blinding glare.
Most Common Types of Highway Lights
The majority of LED highway lights have a lens on the LED panel which casts light rectangularly, directing a great part of the light to the side of the street.
LEDs are the most popular choice for highway lighting because of their low operating and maintenance costs.
Metal halide fixtures generate light via a mixture of metallic vapors. These lights have a high initial lumen output but quickly falter with regular use.
In addition to this, metal halide lights eat up energy and, as a result, have extremely high electrical costs.
Despite this, metal halides might be the most common type of highway light.
The good news is that these days, with the emergence of LEDs, you have much better options to choose from.
High-pressure sodium lights use sodium vapor to help produce lumens. Like fluorescents, HPS fixtures also contain small amounts of mercury, that require special disposal procedures.
These lights are extremely bright but lose lumens quickly, and produce a warm colored light with a low CRI.
HID Highway Lights
These fixtures produce light by exciting gases or metal vapors, located in a lamp or tube. They are generally considered too fragile to be used for highway lighting but are occasionally employed for their high lumen output.
Unfortunately, this lumen output decreases incredibly rapidly, making them a poor choice for almost any lighting application.
So, what’s your best option?
It’s not hard to see, LEDs are the best choice for highway lighting. To read some more in-depth information on the many benefits of LED lighting, you can take a look at this article.
But in the interest of being succinct, LED lights are the most energy-efficient bulb and have the longest lifespan of any light.
The savings on energy costs are an obvious benefit, but the reduction in maintenance costs often flies under the radar.
When you have to employ an entire crew and use heavy machinery to replace light bulbs, a long lifespan and maintenance-free shine can be even more financially rewarding than the electrical savings that LEDs provide.
Highway Light Supports
Often overlooked, but important nonetheless, highway light bases play an important role in highway lighting design. As most states require, the majority of these supports offer some form of a breakaway feature.
The phrase “breakaway support” includes all kinds of sign, luminaire, and traffic signal supports designed to yield in case they are hit by a motor vehicle.
Their release system might involve a slip plane, plastic hinges, fracture elements, or a combo of all of them.
Breakaway bases are the safer options in collisions as their light construction is designed to yield when hit, reducing the chances of causing additional injuries to the driver.
Generally, these supports are made from heavyweight aluminum, nevertheless, they can also be made of concrete or fiberglass in some locations.
FDOT (The Federal Department of Transportation) has created an aluminum light pole standard for Conventional Lighting foundations.
This new standard provides details for 40, 45, and 50-foot highway light mounting heights on poles, and outlines different safety features and regulations that the light supports have to meet.
Highway Light Arm Types
In addition to light supports, arm types are also an important factor to keep in mind.
They’re available primarily in three different variations, single-member, truss, or davit. The rise and length vary depending on the desired design of the lighting structure.
Single Member Arm
Truss Bracket Arm
Davit Bracket Arm
Highway Lighting Fixtures
Based on the needed lighting level, conventional lighting can have different mounting heights. The conventional FDOT mounting heights are 40, 45, and 50 feet.
For standard mountings, there is one luminaire per pole. If it is medium-mounted, it can have two luminaries per pole.
Take a look at the table below outlining the FDOT prerequisites for levels of illumination and ratios of uniformity for standard lighting.
High Mast Lighting
High Mast Lighting involves a mounting height of 80 feet or more. The conventional mounting height is 120 feet. There can be numerous luminaries per pole.
The amount of luminaries is based on the needed light level. The biggest number of luminaries per pole is 12 to 16 lights. With the help of cables, the luminaries are connected to a ring and to a winch in the base of the pole.
The luminaries and the ring lower to the ground with the help of the winch for maintenance. For this, either a previously installed electric motor is used to lower the ring, or a heavy-duty drill motor is attached to the pole to operate the winch.
Take a look at the table below which describes the FDOT prerequisites for levels of illumination and uniformity.
Overhead sign structures need overhead sign lighting that will make the messages portrayed visible during both day and night. They are a crucial element of highway lighting since they relate important information to drivers 24/7.
In the past couple of years, sign designers have created a unique sheeting on the sign which illuminates the sign with the help of vehicle headlights. These signs are more expensive than standard signs. Nevertheless, this kind of sheeting minimizes the expenditure for sign lighting as well as the associated conduit and pull boxes.
Nowadays, most major intersections have various wide overpasses. In those areas, proper lighting throughout the day and night is a must for the roads under the overpasses.
Underdeck lighting involves mounting either a pier cap or pendant hung fixtures under the structure of the bridge. Pier cap fixtures have to be installed when bridge piers are less than 15 feet from the edge of the travel lane.
The pendant hung lights should be mounted to the bottom part of the bridge deck and should be suspended where 50% of the lamp is below the bridge beam.
No fixture or light should be attached to the bridge girders. The underdeck lighting levels should be equal to the adjacent road lighting.
Highway LED Lighting
Highway lighting is absolutely essential. Not only does it keep the roadways safe and visible at night, but it also provides drivers with a way to read signs and makes them feel more comfortable.
Adequate highway lighting reduces the number of car accidents and makes the roads a better place to drive.
But, as you know by now, not all lights are created equal. LED lighting is perfect for highway lights because of it’s low maintenance requirements, extra long lifespan, and natural durability.
LEDs lights may cost slightly more at the onset of installation, but that money will be made back quickly in lower electrical bills and non-existent operating costs.
Sometimes deciding between types of lighting is difficult, but in this case it’s pretty cut and dry. LED is not only the best choose for highway lighting, it’s the perfect one.